American Association for the Advancement of Science
Roadmaps & Rampways


The Directorate for Education and Human Resources Programs of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is grateful to the National Science Foundation (NSF) for its generous support for the Roadmaps & Rampways research project and publication. We are also indebted to the following individuals, agencies, and corporations, whose staffs and resources were essential to the success of the project.

The first opportunity to bring students with disabilities into research internships was initiated by Dillard Menchan, Director of Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The agency-wide AAAS/NASA ACCESS program (Achieving Competence in Computing, Engineering, and Space Science) is administered by Michael Hartman from the Goddard EEO office.

At NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC, Mary Anne Stoutsenberg has given her unstinting support. Bettie White, Pam Covington, and Chris Rodriguez of Headquarters staff, coordinators at eight NASA sites, and mentors on the sites have cooperated with AAAS in placing interns in exciting research projects.

The IBM partnership with AAAS and ENTRY POINT! began with and continues under the leadership of Ted Childs, IBM Vice-President Workforce Diversity. ENTRY POINT! could never have expanded without the enthusiasm of Jean Morrell, who was loaned to AAAS for two and half years under the IBM Executive Loan Program. Millie Des Biens, IBM ENTRY POINT! Program Officer, Marilyn Mayo and Julie Jackowitz of University Staffing, and mentors at every IBM facility have worked with AAAS in making the best possible internship and co-op placements for students.

Larry Scadden, Director of the Program on Persons with Disabilities at NSF and Program Officer for Roadmaps & Rampways, gave wholehearted support to the AAAS effort to research and report on the educational histories of ENTRY POINT! and ACCESS students and their achievements. Within NSF, Wanda Ward, Sherry Blevins, and Marilyn Suiter further promoted the ENTRY POINT! program and identified mentors for students who interned at NSF headquarters.

The research objectives of the Roadmaps & Rampways project were developed with significant input from all members of the Advisory Committee, each of whom deeply understood science, education, and disability, from his or her own life experience: Vicki Barr, Director of the HEATH Resource Center, National Clearing House on Postsecondary Education for Individuals with Disabilities of the American Council on Education (ACE); Pat Campbell, Campbell-Kibler Associates; Ted Conway, Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, University of Central Florida; Wanda Cullers, parent and formerly of the Office of the President, University of California/Irvine; Ruth Frischer, U.S. Agency for International Development; Jeff Liebman, pharmaceutical psychologist; and Anne Swanson, Emeritus Dean of Natural Sciences, Sonoma State University, California.

At AAAS, in the Directorate for Education and Human Resources Programs, Laureen Summers, Program Associate of the Project on Science, Technology and Disability, kept communication alive with all ENTRY POINT! applicants and interns, as they moved from school to work and back to school again. Ginny Van Horne conducted the initial interviews with the students and developed statistics. Cathy Campos provided important administrative support for the project. Shirley Malcom, Head of the Directorate and Yolanda George, Deputy Director, gave moral support throughout.

Transforming digital files of text and artwork into a truly artistic paper-and-ink document that informs and enlightens is an essential step in publication of any book. We were fortunate, indeed, to have the creative talents of Ann Williams, who developed the graphic design for Roadmaps & Rampways. A second important member of our creative team was Hagan Rivers, whose company,, built the website to include the content and spirit of Roadmaps and also to make it accessible to individuals with print impairments and other disabilities. Chuck Harwood and Bob Hirshon worked with the Advisory Committee and AAAS staff to develop the concepts of "The Roadmaps Game." Dickson Carroll, a Washington, DC, architect and sculptor, whose works are installed in the AAAS building, was the artist who drew the game.

Cathy Henderson, higher education consultant for the American Council on Education and other organizations, researched and wrote the report on students with disabilities in postsecondary education that appears in Appendix II.

Kelley Carpenter's talent as a careful and sensitive copyeditor enhanced the manuscript, ensuring consistency and coherence.

Finally, we are forever grateful to those whose contributions are at the very core of this project - the Roadmaps students and their families - who amiably agreed to multiple interviews, generously shared their experiences, loaned us family photographs, and most importantly, are existence proofs that disability is no barrier to entry and advancement in science.

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Profiles: Assistive Technology | Persistence | Beyond All Expectations | Late Diagnosis | The Golden Door | Informal Science and Popular Culture | The Pinball Effect | Families

Additional Materials: The Roadmaps Game | Afterward | Students' Backgrounds | Assistive Technology | Notes on Disabilities | 1990s Profile of Students with Students in Higher Education | Acknowledgments | References

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